23 December 2020.
According to the US Geological Survey Kilauea volcano within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the Big Island has erupted recently after a two year break.
About Kiluea Volcano:
- Kilauea is the youngest and most active Hawaiian shield volcano, located on the southern part of the Island of Hawai’i, known as Big Island.
Kilauea volcano is near-constantly erupting from vents either on its summit (caldera) or on the rift zones.
- At present, Kilauea volcano is still having one of the most long-lived eruptions known on earth, which started in 1983 .
- The Kilauea volcano was last active in 2018 due to an earthquake.
- It is the most active of the five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii.
- Structurally, Mt Kilauea has a recently formed Caldera.
- Caldera is a hollow structure formed after a volcano erupts large volumes of magma in short period of time. The ground surface then collapses downward into the emptied magma chamber. The collapse leaves a massive depression at the surface.
- Kilauea is a Shield Volcano. Shield volcano is a type of volcano that is composed of fluid lava. It resembles a warrior shield and thus the name Shield volcano. The lava flow of Shield Volcano is greater than the Strato Volcano.
- Between 1983 and 2018, Kilauea has erupted continuously.
- During the 2018 eruption, around two dozen lava vents erupted simultaneously from the summit.
- The pit crater formed in the volcano is called Halemaumau.
- The crater contained a lava lake.
- Eventually water began to fill in the lake after the volcano began to erupt in multiple other locations.
What is Hawaii Hotspot?
- It is a volcanic hotspot that is located near the Hawaii Islands.
- The Hotspots are volcanic regions that are fed by the underlying mantle that is hotter than the surrounding mantle.
- The position of a hotspot is independent of tectonic plate boundaries.
- The tectonic plates usually move above the hotspots.
- Volcanoes are created as the tectonic plates move above the hotspots.
Five Major volcanoes of Hawaii Island:
- Kohala (Extinct),
- Mauana Kea (Dormant),
- Hualalai (dormant),
- Mauna Loa (active) and Kilauea (active).
- The Island of Hawaii is currently growing due to volcanoes Mauna Loa and Kilauea