Mind Maps

Archana Sharma
Archana Sharma

I did my Masters in Zoology specialising in Entomology. My topic of research in M. Phil was Genetics. I have been deeply interested in my subject and recent developments in the fields of Environment and Biology. I have been teaching General Studies part of Ecology and Environment, Climate Change, Global Warming, Biology, Biodiversity and Conservation to IAS aspirants.

What is Environment?


What is Ecology?

Ecology is a branch of Biology, coined from Greeks words, oikos- house+ logos-study-Ecology- A Study of our house (environment) and everything in it.

What is an Ecosystem?

Many of the ecosystems are threatened due to pollution, global warming and anthropogenic causes.

Energy Flow in the Ecosystem

Energy flow in the ecosystem is the amount of energy that moves in a food chain. Energy entering is measured in calories, hence also called Calorific Flow.

Types of Ecosystem

There are basically two types of ecosystems- Terrestrial & Aquatic, all other ecosystems fall under one of the these types.

What is an Ecotone?

Ecotones are of great environmental importance, it’s a transition zone and contains a variety of flora and fauna influenced by both ecosystems.

What is an ecological succession?

It is a process by which communities of an ecosystem change in a defined and directional way over time.

Types of Terrestrial Ecosystems in India

Terrestrial Ecosystems provide many services including- providing habitat for flora and fauna , fibre, fuel, shelter, storing ,transforming and releasing carbon, water and nutrients.

Significance of Aquatic Ecosystem

Aquatic ecosystem perform many important environmental functions.For example- recycling nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge water and provide habitats for wildlife.

Types of Aquatic Zones

Life in aquatic zone is influenced by temperature, access to sunlight for photosynthesis, dissolved oxygen and availability of nutrients.

Types of Forests of India

Forests play an important role in the socio-economic development of a country like India.They are rich sources of energy, housing, firewood, timber and fodder and they provide employment to a large section of rural population.

Procedure of Assessing Environment Impact

Environment Impact Assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, policy program or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with proposed action.

Process of Bio-Accumulation & Bio-magnification

Example of bio-magnification- a small fish eating plankton tainted with mercury.. the toxin amplifies as it moves up the food -chain

Significance of Mangroves

Mangroves protect shorelines from damaging by storms, hurricane winds, waves and floods.Mangroves help to prevent erosion ,maintain water quality and clarity by filtering sediments.

Causes of Air Pollution

Air pollution kills an estimated 7million people worldwide every year!

Types of Pollutants

Different types of pollutants in Nature!

What is Biodiversity?

Biodiversity boosts ecosystem’s productivity where each spp,no matter how small have a role to play!

What are the causes of Biodiversity loss?

Biodiversity loss has a negative impact on our climate, health, natural resources, pollution, poverty and extinction of species

What are the Modes of Conservation?

Conservation is the care and protection of these resources so that they can persist for future generations!

What is CBD?

In 2020,the CBD will adopt a post 2020 global diversity framework as a stepping stone towards the 2050 vision of “‘Living in Harmony with Nature”

What are CBD Protocols?

CBD has two supplementary agreements- Cartegena and Nagoya Protocols!

What are Biodiversity Hotspots?

Biodiversity Act

Biodiversity Act 2002 is an Act of Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity!

Types of Protected Areas

Protected area s are essential for conservation of biodiversity!

Protected Areas

Protection helps maintain ecological processes survive in most intensely managed landscapes!

What is Acid Rain?

Acid rain is a broad term that includes any form of precipitation with acidic components!

What is ozone depletion?

Ozone hole is the region over Antartica with total ozone of 220 Dobson Unit or less!

Climate Change and Global Warming

Global warming is mainly the human-caused rise of the average temperature of Earth’s Climate System!

Significance of National Action Plan on Climate Change

The National Action Plan was released on 30th June 2008 for climate mitigation and adaptation!


UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty adopted on May 1992,came into force on 21 March 1994!

About IPCC

Fifth Assessment Report(AR5) is the latest in the series from IPCC released between 2013-2014.!

About Rotterdam Convention

COP 9 held along with BC COP 14 and SC COP 9 in Geneva from29 April -10 May !Theme-Clean Planet Healthy People: Sound Management of Chemicals and Waste!

About Vienna Convention

WMO reported in 2018 about the recovery of ozone layer following action taken under Montreal Protocol!

About Stockholm Convention

SC COP 9 was held along with BC COP 14 and RC COP 9 in Geneva from 29 April to 10 May !

About Montreal Protocol

September 16 is International Day for Preservation of the Ozone layer, also celebrated as anniversary of Montreal Protocol!

About IUCN

It is a critical indicator of health of the world’s biodiversity!


CITES has been successful for many of 42 spp. and 60 plus agenda items!

About Basel Convention

It is not a legally binding convention!

About Convention of Migratory Species

Also known as Bonn Convention!

About Biosphere Reserve

Biosphere Reserve provide practical ways to protect biodiversity!

About Ramsar Convention

This is not legally binding and is not part of UN & UNESCO conventions!